Hacker term At MIT, the terms hack and hacker have many shades of meaning,    though they are closely linked historically and culturally with computer hacking in its original non- computer-cracker sensecollegiate practical jokesand even culture jamming. The origin of this usage is unknown, but it seems to have been widespread at MIT by the s, and the hacker ethic has since spread into cyberculture and beyond. Over time, the term has been generalized to describe anybody who possesses great technical proficiency in any particular skill, usually combined with an offbeat sense of humor. The manifestation of hacker culture in the form of spectacular pranks is the most visible aspect of this culture to the world at large, but many hacker subcultures exist at MIT, and elsewhere.
Its founder, John Africawas functionally illiterate. Africa and his contemporary, mostly African-American followers wore their hair in dreadlocksas popularized Profanity in college essays the Caribbean Rastafari movement.
MOVE advocated a radical form of green politics and a return to a hunter-gatherer society, while stating their opposition to science, medicine, and technology. MOVE members believe that as all living beings are dependent, their lives should be treated in equal importance.
They advocate for justice that is not always based within the institutions. MOVE believes in order for something to be just, it must be just for all living creatures. The group that formed in the early s melded the revolutionary ideology of the Black Panthers with the nature- and animal-loving communalism of s hippies.
You might characterise them as black liberationists-cum-eco warriors. He quoted member Janine Africa, who wrote Profanity in college essays him from prison: We demonstrated against Three Mile Island and industrial pollution.
We demonstrated against police brutality. And we did so uncompromisingly. Slavery never ended, it was just disguised. As activists, they staged bullhorn -amplified, profanity -laced demonstrations against institutions that they opposed, such as zoos MOVE had strong views on animal rightsand speakers whose views they opposed.
MOVE activities were scrutinized by law enforcement authorities,   particularly under the administration of Mayor Frank Rizzoa former police commissioner known for his hard line against activist groups. MOVE members made a treaty with the police.
They agreed to move out of the premises and surrender their weapons if the police released their members who were held in city jails. The police held up their end of the deal, but MOVE members failed to comply. Philadelphia Police Department officer James J.
Ramp was killed by a shot to the back of the neck. They said shooting broke out and Ramp was killed by a single bullet.
Prosecutors alleged that MOVE members fired the fatal shot and charged Sims Africa and the other eight with collective responsibility for his death.
According to a article in The Guardian, "Eyewitnesses, however, gave accounts suggesting that the shot may have come from the opposite direction to the basement, raising the possibility that Ramp was accidentally felled, by police fire.
After the raid was over, weapons were found within the property. None were in operative condition. The MOVE 9[ edit ] "Prosecutors at the trial of the Move Nine told the jury that at the time of the August siege there had been functioning firearms in the house.
Inat age 47, Merle Africa died in prison. Parole hearings for each of these prisoner were to be held yearly from that time. She gave birth to him a month after she was imprisoned, and he was taken from her a week later. The release of Sims Africa renewed attention on members of MOVE and the Black Panthers who remain imprisoned in the US from the period of the s and s; there are about twenty-five.
Neighbors complained to the city for years about trash around their building, confrontations with neighbors, and that MOVE members were broadcasting sometimes obscene political messages by bullhorn.
Sambor classified MOVE as a terrorist organization. They were told that they would be able to return to their homes after a twenty-four hour period.
When the MOVE members did not respond, the police decided to forcefully remove the members from the house.
The police said that MOVE members fired at them; a gunfight with semi-automatic and automatic firearms ensued. Frank Powell proceeded to drop two one-pound bombs which the police referred to as "entry devices"  made of FBI-supplied water gel explosivea dynamite substitute, targeting a fortified, bunker-like cubicle on the roof of the house.
The firefighters, who had earlier deluge-hosed the MOVE members in a failed attempt to evict them from the building, stood by as the fire caused by the bomb engulfed the first house and spread to others, having been given orders by Police Commissioner Sambor to let the fire burn.
Despite the earlier drenching of the building by firefighters, officials said they feared that MOVE would shoot at the firefighters. Police Commissioner Sambor said he received the order, but the fire commissioner testified that he did not receive the order.
More than people in the neighborhood were left homeless. Police commissioner Gregore J. Sambor resigned in November ; in a speech the following year, he said that he was made a "surrogate" by Goode. The report denounced the actions of the city government, stating that "Dropping a bomb on an occupied row house was unconscionable.
The only surviving adult MOVE member, Ramona Africa, was charged and convicted on charges of riot and conspiracy; she served seven years in prison. Together they had a child, Zackary Africa, circa Book Description His freshman year of college, Alex Lemon was supposed to be the star catcher on the Macalester College baseball team.
He was the boy getting every girl, the hard-partying kid who everyone called Happy, often without even knowing his real name.
In the spring of , he had his first stroke. MOVE is a black liberation group founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by John Africa (born Vincent Leaphart) in The name is not an acronym.
The group lived in a communal setting in West Philadelphia, abiding by philosophies of anarcho-primitivism. The group combined revolutionary ideology, similar to that of the Black Panthers, with work for animal rights.
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