Response-to-Instruction and Universal Design for Learning: In recent years, RTI and UDL have both received increased attention from the education, policy, and disability communities. Both of these strategies are important to improve the ability of students with disabilities to participate and progress in the general education curriculum.
Description[ edit ] RTI is originally a special education term that has broadened into general education framework that involves research-based instruction and interventions, regular monitoring of student progress, and the subsequent use of these data over time to make a variety of educational decisions, including, but not limited to SLD eligibility.
A goal of the RTI process is to apply accountability to educational program by focusing on programs that work rather than programs that simply look, sound, or feel good.
RTI follows a number of core assumptions: They are a group of disorders that can impact many areas of learning, including reading, writing, spelling, math, listening, and oral expression.
In the RTI process, service delivery is typically divided into three levels tiers of support, with the intensity of interventions increasing with each level. Students who consistently do not perform within the expected level of performance through Tier 1 instruction are then provided with additional supplementary interventions at Tier 2, which typically involves small group instruction.
As RTI is a regular education initiative, all three tiers of services are intended to be provided as supplements to, not replacements for, the regular education curriculum; there are some, however, who view Tier 3 as special education.
These screening assessments are typically given to all students within targeted grade levels, and cover basic academic subjects such as reading and mathematics.
Most screening measures aim to be practical and efficient to administer, with the goal of identifying students who may require further assessments and interventions. To evaluate student performance on the screening measures, scores are compared to specific criteria criterion referenced or to broad norms norm referenced.
When specific criteria are used, cut scores are established to evaluate students against a specific level of proficiency e. Screenings usually occur three times per year fall, winter, and springand the data from these assessments help to guide instruction through the three tiers of the RTI process.
This is important not only for identifying students who are having difficulties, but also for identifying possible areas of improvement in the general classroom instruction in the cases where too many students fall below expectations.
Teaching[ edit ] Core curriculum in the classroom should be research-based and field tested. This means, based on evidence from congregating research, that the core curriculum contains all the fundamentals found necessary to efficiently teach reading and has a recognized record of achievement.
Such curriculum is to be delivered by "highly qualified" teachers adequately trained to deliver the selected instruction as intended, that is, with fidelity to design.
Progress monitoring and tiered service delivery[ edit ] Progress monitoring is a set of assessment procedures for determining the extent to which students are benefiting from classroom instruction and for monitoring effectiveness of curriculum.
Curriculum-based measurement CBM  is often used to collect data on interventions and their effectiveness to determine what works best for an individual student.
Additional methods are attempted until students "respond" to the intervention and improve their skills. Students that do not respond, or respond at significantly low rates, may be deemed to have biologically based learning disabilities, rather than simply learning difficulties.
Progress monitoring is the scientifically based practice of assessing students' academic performance on a regular basis for three purposes: To determine whether children are profiting appropriately from the instructional program, including the curriculum To build more effective programs for the children who do not benefit To estimate rates of student improvement Three tiers of Scientifically Research-Based Interventions SRBIs of increasing intensity incorporate the key components of RTI and help ensure the academic growth and achievement of students.
Tier 1[ edit ] The first tier states that all students receive core classroom instruction that is differentiated and utilizes strategies and materials that are scientifically research-based.
Assessment in the classroom should be ongoing and effective in that it clearly identifies the strengths and weaknesses for each learner. Any necessary interventions at this level are within the framework of the general education classroom and can be in the form of differentiated instruction, small group review, or one-on-one remediation of a concept.
Progress monitoring in Tier 1 uses universal screening assessments to show individual student growth over time and to determine whether students are progressing as expected.
In this process, data are collected, students are identified using benchmark scores, and measurable goals are set for the next data collection point for those who display difficulties.
The team then follows a problem-solving process to determine interventions for at-risk students that will work within whole-class instructions. The classroom teacher implements the interventions, observations are conducted to ensure the fidelity of the classroom instruction, and the problem-solving team periodically reviews the progress of students.
Tier 2[ edit ] In the second tier, supplemental interventions may occur within or outside of the general education classroom, and progress monitoring occurs at more frequent intervals. This type of targeted instruction is typically for 30 minutes per day, two to four days per week, for a minimum of nine weeks.
This targeted instruction may occur in the general education setting or outside in a smaller group setting with a specialized teacher such as a Literacy Support teacher for struggling readers. In Tier 2, the main purpose of progress monitoring is to determine whether interventions are successful in helping students learn at an appropriate rate.
Decision rules are created to determine when a student might no longer require extra interventions, when the interventions need to be changed, or when a student might be identified for special education.
Oral language abilities at the onset of reading intervention programs are an excellent predictor of final outcomes.RtI INTERVENTIONS MANUAL ESU #1 Providing Innovation, Leadership, and Service.
Billie Hightree Sitzmann, Ed.S., School Psychologist Bobbi Hightree, Ed.S., School. The Northern Territory National Emergency Response (also referred to as "the intervention") was a package of changes to welfare provision, law enforcement, land tenure and other measures, introduced by the Australian federal government under John Howard in to address allegations of rampant child sexual abuse and neglect in Northern Territory Aboriginal communities.
The heart of any Response-to-Intervention (RTI) model lies in the use of tiered instructional processes. Although the assessment components of RTI (universal screening and progress monitoring) are essential elements of implementation, it is the instruction that occurs as a function of the outcomes of the assessments that truly drives the changes we hope to see in students who are identified as.
We address the advantages and challenges of service delivery models based on student response to intervention (RTI) for preventing and remediating academic difficulties and as data sources for identification for special education services.
This is the first article in a three-part series. In this three-part series, we present an overview of the issues most relevant to the development and implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) models in contemporary urban schools.
The effort to understand Response to Intervention (RTI) has occupied many thousands of hours and hundreds of position and policy statements, white papers, consensus documents, and research articles.