Translate this page from English Print Page Change Text Size: What is the current state of critical thinking in higher education? Sadly, studies of higher education demonstrate three disturbing, but hardly novel, facts:
Teaching students how to comprehend expository text Twenty years ago, research on the reading comprehension problems of students with learning disabilities focused on their difficulties with decoding text.
Today, though, researchers view such problems as arising from difficulties across a wide range of language and thinking activities Swanson and Hoskyn, They recognize that some students have mastered the mechanics of reading but still have comprehension problems. This type of problem may not be evident until the higher grades when comprehension challenges increase.
Although students with learning disabilities may have the ability to process information, they do so with great inefficiency.
It is not atypical for students with learning disabilities to be unaware of basic strategies that good readers use as a matter of course, such as re-reading passages they don't understand. These are difficulties of strategic processing and metacognition Gersten, Williams, Fuchs and Baker, Strategic processing is the ability to control and manage one's own cognitive activities in a reflective, purposeful fashion.
Metacognition is the ability to evaluate whether one is performing successfully. Research shows that instruction can improve students' strategic processing of text.
This article summarizes relevant research and promising practices in the strategic processing of text, focusing first on the strategic processing of narrative and then expository text. Teaching students how to comprehend narrative text Generally speaking, narrative text i.
For one thing, the content of a narrative is usually more familiar than the content of an exposition. Most research on narrative text has focused on teaching students to utilize story structure as an organizing framework for understanding critical aspects of the stories they read.
Even preschool children use story structure to aid their comprehension. As they get older, children improve in their ability to use it.
However, students with learning disabilities are slower to develop this ability. They may not be good at certain tasks, such as picking out important story information, making inferences, and identifying story themes. Several studies have addressed the question of how to improve the ability of students with learning disabilities to use narrative structure.
For example, Idol-Maestasdeveloped a strategy that consisted of the following steps: However, when the intervention was removed, student performance declined. Maintenance of performance levels after teacher guidance or other external support has been removed is a common concern in these studies.
This issue is addressed directly in work on comprehension monitoring. The comprehension of all of the students in the trained groups improved equally, suggesting that it was not any specific strategy that led to the improvement.
Rather, all of the students had been actively engaged with the struggle to understand the texts, which triggered the use of strategies that the students possessed but rarely used. Probably the most effective of strategies has been teaching students how to use story grammar as an organizational guide when reading.
Story grammar refers to the principal components of a story: Main character Action Outcome This technique has been applied by using story maps and by asking generic questions based on story grammar.
It has also been used to move beyond the plot level of stories to teach students with disabilities to identify story themes, a more abstract comprehension level than is typically taught to students with learning disabilities.
An important question in intervention research is the extent to which one can generalize from the experimental situation to the ordinary classroom.
Only a few studies have focused on teacher delivery within naturally occurring classroom settings.The present study investigated the impact of brainstorming as a pre-reading strategy on reading comprehension ability as well as critical thinking (CT) ability of EFL learners.
In so doing, the. reading comprehension, critical thinking, debate technique, gender. Introduction. In recent decades, studies on reading comprehension have led to great emphasis on the important role of problem-solving techniques that supposedly enable the students to identify, evaluate, and solve perplexities that arise in reading (Waters, ).
Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument. Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing. Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Metropolitan Community College.
This study showed that learning to read by sounding out words (a teaching method known as phonics) has a dramatic impact on the accuracy of reading aloud and comprehension. Students must employ critical thinking when determining cause and effect in a reading selection.
To understand that each action has a reaction or consequence of some type, the student must make logical connections between events. This cause and effect worksheet encourages students to work on reading comprehension, a key skill that takes lots and lots of practice to master.