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History[ edit ] The need for NextGen became apparent during the summer of when air travel was impeded by severe congestion and costly delays. Two years later, the Commission on the Future of the U. Aerospace Industry recommended that a multi-agency task force develop an integrated plan to transform the U.
The concept of operations provided the overview of NextGen goals for Growth of the NextGen concept was an evolutionary, step-by-step process, and the JPDO document continued to be updated through The same year, the FAA published the first version of its expanded Operational Evolution Partnership,  which outlined the agency's path to NextGen through The concept of operations was intended to drive cross-agency research to validate the concepts as well as eliminate ideas and alternatives that were not operationally feasible or beneficial.
The FAA concept of operations was consistent with the JPDO's broad set of objectives, including maintaining safety and security, increasing capacity and efficiency, ensuring access to airspace and airports, and mitigating environmental impacts.
The report identified several key transformational concepts as necessary to achieve NextGen goals and objectives, such as precision navigation and network-enabled information access, and the FAA has made progress on them.
NextGen progress involved expanded research and development capability, participation by the aviation industry and international partners, and support by the White House and Congress, which are highlighted in this section.
The agency established a research and development facility, known as a testbed, at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Daytona BeachFlorida, in The lab's capability grew in with a contract awarded to General Dynamics to provide engineering, software design and development, infrastructure, and administrative support.
The program was funded to equip 1, aircraft across the industry to ensure enough aircraft would participate in Data Comm.
The FAA seeks to ensure international air traffic management interoperability and system harmonization for improved safety and efficiency. The FAA Modernization and Reform Act of  included establishing deadlines for adopting existing NextGen navigation and surveillance technology, and mandated development of precision navigational procedures at the nation's 35 busiest airports by Inthe FAA's Aviation Safety organization released a work plan that identified how the safety staff would set NextGen standards and oversee safe implementation of new technologies, processes, and procedures.
The FAA also issued a final rule mandating NextGen performance requirements for aircraft surveillance equipment. It required aircraft operating in most controlled U.
In addition, the report predicts the total number of people flying on U. If capacity is to keep pace with increased demand for services, changes are needed in the way services are provided. Pilots have more aeronautical, traffic, and weather information inside the cockpit.
Airlines fly shorter, more direct routes to get passengers to their destinations more quickly while burning less fuel and producing fewer emissions. Monetized benefits comprise internal FAA cost savings, reduced passenger travel time, decreased aircraft operating costs, lower fuel consumption, fewer travel delays, avoided cancellations, additional flights, reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and reduced injuries, fatalities and aircraft losses and damages.
NextGen systems also can increase controller and pilot productivity, such as with Data Communications.
The agency worked with industry to identify capabilities taking advantage of existing aircraft equipage. Next, the FAA started replacing its foundational infrastructure. These programs support NextGen objectives with modern software architectures that serve as the platform for new capabilities for air traffic controllers and managers.
The FAA uses a widely accepted model for building large-scale automation systems. Program lifecycles are continuous with a planned schedule of technology refreshes.
For example, the FAA finished installing the original hardware for ERAM inand completed software and program acceptance in Inthe agency updated the technology of all major system components that were becoming obsolete. This is a common approach to maintain the latest level of technology.
On top of the foundational systems, the FAA then identified key enabling systems that improve communication, information sharing, navigation, surveillance, traffic flow optimization, and weather systems. Changes to the national airspace necessary to implement these individual concepts yield additional benefits.
Integrating these systems is anticipated to transform the air traffic management system in an effort to keep pace with the growing needs of an increasingly diverse mix of air transportation system users without sacrificing safety.
TBO is a method of strategically planning and managing air traffic from airport to airport for optimal performance by using the aircraft's ability to fly precise paths; metering traffic flow using time instead of distance; and sharing information between pilots, flight dispatchers, and controllers and managers.
This will provide improved knowledge of the estimated departure and arrival time at each navigational waypoint along the entire route of flight. These times will be shared between air and ground automation systems and used to improve assessments of how to balance demand and capacity, and minimize the impact of disruptions due to weather, or system or facility outages.
NextGen benefits extend to all phases of flight operations. Because NextGen is a complex, large-scale system of systems implemented over more than 18 years, its development and implementation can be difficult to follow. Systems are always in various stages of lifecycle management from research and development to technical refreshes.
To manage NextGen with short-term funding horizons, the FAA rolled out improvements in smaller increments with more program segments to ensure affordability.
The FAA has scheduled initial implementation of all major planned systems by but not the full integration necessary to provide the complete set of anticipated NextGen benefits.Nov. 13 - Centering science instruction around investigation and design can improve learning in middle and high schools and help students make sense of phenomena in the world around them, says a new report from the National Academies.
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