Us government issues antitrust case against microsoft

A step backward Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates called the legal attack a "step backwards for America, for consumers and for the PC industry" and vowed the Redmond, Wash. Attorney General Janet Reno.

Us government issues antitrust case against microsoft

The Court has considered the record evidence submitted by the parties, made determinations as to its relevancy and materiality, assessed the credibility of the testimony of the witnesses, both written and oral, and ascertained for its purposes the probative significance of the documentary and visual evidence presented.

Upon the record before the Court as of July 28,at the close of the admission of evidence, pursuant to Fed. The Court shall state the conclusions of law to be drawn therefrom in a separate Memorandum and Order to be filed in due course.

A "personal computer" "PC" is a digital information processing device designed for use by one person at a time. A typical PC consists of central processing components e. PC systems, which include desktop and laptop models, can be distinguished from more powerful, more expensive computer systems known as "servers," which are designed to provide data, services, and functionality through a digital network to multiple users.

The operating system also supports the functions of software programs, called "applications," that perform specific user-oriented tasks. The operating system supports the functions of applications by exposing interfaces, called "application programming interfaces," or "APIs.

These blocks of code in turn perform crucial tasks, such as displaying text on the computer screen. Because it supports applications while interacting more closely with the PC system's hardware, the operating system is said to serve as a "platform.

Us government issues antitrust case against microsoft

An operating system designed to run on an Intel-compatible PC will not function on a non-Intel-compatible PC, nor will an operating system designed for a non-Intel-compatible PC function on an Intel-compatible one.

Similarly, an application that relies on APIs specific to one operating system will not, generally speaking, function on another operating system unless it is first adapted, or "ported," to the APIs of the other operating system. Defendant Microsoft Corporation is organized under the laws of the State of Washington, and its headquarters are situated in Redmond, Washington.

Since its inception, Microsoft has focused primarily on developing software and licensing it to various purchasers. InMicrosoft began shipping a software package called Windows.

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The product included a graphical user interface, which enabled users to perform tasks by selecting icons and words on the screen using a mouse. Although originally just a user-interface, or "shell," sitting on top of MS-DOS, Windows took on more operating-system functionality over time.

InMicrosoft introduced a software package called Windows 95, which announced itself as the first operating system for Intel-compatible PCs that exhibited the same sort of integrated features as the Mac OS running PCs manufactured by Apple Computer, Inc.

Windows 95 enjoyed unprecedented popularity with consumers, and in JuneMicrosoft released its successor, Windows Microsoft is the leading supplier of operating systems for PCs.

The company transacts business in all fifty of the United States and in most countries around the world. Microsoft licenses copies of its software programs directly to consumers. An OEM typically installs a copy of Windows onto one of its PCs before selling the package to a consumer under a single price.

The Internet is a global electronic network, consisting of smaller, interconnected networks, which allows millions of computers to exchange information over telephone wires, dedicated data cables, and wireless links.

The Internet links PCs by means of servers, which run specialized operating systems and applications designed for servicing a network environment. The World Wide Web "the Web" is a massive collection of digital information resources stored on servers throughout the Internet.

These resources are typically provided in the form of hypertext documents, commonly referred to as "Web pages," that may incorporate any combination of text, graphics, audio and video content, software programs, and other data.

A user of a computer connected to the Internet can publish a page on the Web simply by copying it into a specially designated, publicly accessible directory on a Web server. Some Web resources are in the form of applications that provide functionality through a user's PC system but actually execute on a server.

Internet content providers "ICPs" are the individuals and organizations that have established a presence, or "site," on the Web by publishing a collection of Web pages.

Most Web pages are in the form of "hypertext"; that is, they contain annotated references, or "hyperlinks," to other Web pages.

Hyperlinks can be used as cross-references within a single document, between documents on the same site, or between documents on different sites. Typically, one page on each Web site is the "home page," or the first access point to the site.

The home page is usually a hypertext document that presents an overview of the site and hyperlinks to the other pages comprising the site. PCs typically connect to the Internet through the services of Internet access providers "IAPs"which generally charge subscription fees to their customers in the United States.

There are two types of IAPs. Internet service providers "ISPs" such as MindSpring and Netcom, on the other hand, offer few services apart from Internet access and relatively little of their own content. A "Web client" is software that, when running on a computer connected to the Internet, sends information to and receives information from Web servers throughout the Internet.

A "Web browser" is a type of Web client that enables a user to select, retrieve, and perceive resources on the Web.(An antitrust case with the European Union was settled in , although Microsoft is still appealing a $ billion fine for failing to comply with a antitrust order in Europe.) Microsoft’s antitrust troubles were first ignited in with an investigation of the company by the Federal Trade Commission.

Microsoft has spent 21 years — more than half its lifetime — fighting antitrust battles with the U.S. government. Microsoft v., Inc. was a court case brought on December 20, , by Microsoft against Lindows, Inc, claiming that the name "Lindows" was a violation of its trademark "Windows." In addition to the United States, Microsoft has also sued Lindows in Sweden, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Canada.

FINDINGS OF FACT. These consolidated civil antitrust actions alleging violations of the Sherman Act, §§ 1 and 2, and various state statutes by the defendant Microsoft Corporation, were tried to the Court, sitting without a .

Jan 02,  · Judge rules Microsoft violated antitrust laws joined the federal government in the landmark case. Microsoft shares plunged $ to $ before the .

Apr 04,  · ''It boxes them in,'' said Robert Litan, a former senior official in the Justice Department's antitrust division who dealt with the department's last suit against Microsoft, in

United States v. Microsoft Corp. - Wikipedia